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Kidnapping and Hostage Taking in the Globalization Era

One of the major challenges of the globalization period is human security. From jihad to religious extremism and today terrorism, a word which have become common. Terrorists use kidnapping and hostage taking as strategic patterns to create fear, which has some challenges and manifestations both to the family and law enforcement agents engaged in combatting these menace. In some cases, hostages are killed, while in others after negotiations they are released. This report explores kidnappings perpetrated by jihadist groups. It appeals for necessary contextual review in order to understand the challenges posed by current kidnapping events.

Kidnapping and hostage-taking is a criminal strategy used by terrorist and religious extremism to inflict heavy psychological burden on family relations, and to expose challenges of human security by the state and its security machinery. The profile of those or individual abducted, generates an anxiety and fear to the community; how secured is the community? Which policing approach should be adopted? What are the reasons for the abduction (kidnapping)? And examine a proper rescue strategy. 

The globalization era has change the dynamics of journalism, as news or propaganda quickly hit the stage through sensational headlines on kidnapping or hostage-taking, which can extort political and military action, and as well divert or remobilize resources or security capabilities from an important mission to a minor operation. This is usually through an incident which can be amplified due to uncertainty and complexity of an operational environment appealing to the international community from a terrorist agenda.

The 21st century, is characterized with the proliferation of terrorist organizations, militancy (religious extremism, quest for fragmentation of state due to historical precedents and internal wrangling) and religious fundamentalist ideology and patterns ‘jihadist tendencies’. Some of these tendencies include but is not limited to kidnapping and hostage taking. The number of incidents related to the above rose gradually until the early 2000s. one of the main reason for the increase in kidnappings by terrorists since 2003 is solely related to the emergence of sovereignty free actors or jihadist groups in conflict areas. 

Domestic instability and conflict appear to be drivers of kidnappings. For instance, Cameroon is marked by such, torn apart by the violence between rebel groups on one side and self-defense groups on the other, not forgetting the state appealing on human security for its citizens. Some other countries experiencing instability such as Mali, Somalia, and Nigeria. In terms of human security, kidnapping is a strategic pattern for creating fear, funding criminal activities of jihadist tendencies, in regardless of other considerations; inflow of foreigners to conflict zones, whether for business, humanitarian assistance or other purposes, creates a certain measure of opportunity for its employment, which can limit this criminal pattern. As such, is important to understand how the phenomenon is changing and what that means for those charged with addressing this challenge.

Landscape of kidnapping and hostage

This report is exploring the increasing security menace in the world with focus on kidnapping and hostage taking. Following current security trends the term Kidnapping is difficult to define, but it may have many legal variations depending on the level of governance establish laws and the conditions, but it may be purposely general in scope. According to US army TRADOC, TRADOC G2 Handbook No.1.06, Kidnapping and Terror (2017) kidnapping occurs when a person, without lawful authority, physically moves another person without that other person’s consent, with the intent to use the abduction in connection with some other nefarious objective.” According to US army TRADOC, TRADOC G2 Handbook No.1.06, Kidnapping and Terror (2017), there are two major aspects to be retained in relation to kidnapping are: (1) movement or detention must be unlawful. (2) some aggravating circumstance must accompany the restraint or movement. The second incident or circumstance, perpetrators may usually request for money, an attempt to humiliate government functioning, an attempt to terrorize a third party.

In relation to global security trends, hostage-taking is usually the seizure or detention of an individual with the threat to kill, injure, or continue to detain the individual in or to compel a third-party or governmental organization to do, or to abstain from doing, an act as an explicit or implicit condition for the release of the individual. Using Iran embassy siege in London in the 7os, its necessary to understand the principle or core aspects of a hostage crisis; a period of captivity; a rescue, release, or recovery of the hostage; and, repatriation. Civil-military relationship is necessary in the process to recover captured, detained, evading, isolated, or missing personnel from hostile or denied areas.

Particularly

The events of the 9/11 in U.S is a historic panacea in international security and diplomacy. From one continent to the other, each nation is challenge by which security measure to be adopted to combat emerging human security threats. Al Qaeda’s threats to the West have been reinforced by ISIS, Boko-Haram and Al Shabaab, which expand their sphere in Africa and others countries in the Arabian Peninsula. Below, this report will be examining the particularities of jihadist groups in relation to kidnapping and hostage taking (that is the outcome of these phenomenon).

Funding terrorism

Terrorist or jihadist groups are increasing making money or funding their activities from ransom paid by state and individuals. The payment of this ransom is a major aspect for the evolution of terrorist networks or groups, not as it helps fund their activities, but it helps pay new recruits. In 2012, David Cohen, then the U.S. Treasury under secretary for terrorism and financial intelligence, warned of al-Qaeda’s growing strength due to the payment of ransom to rescue individuals kidnapped. This is also similar in the Horn of Africa, ransom payments played a central role in the growth of Al-Qaeda in the Islamic Maghreb (AQIM) (Al Shabaab). 

Victims profile

Just as one of the prerequisite for terrorist coordinated attack is an appeal for mass casualties, kidnapping in most cases in focus on profiled individuals or foreigners in another country to create diplomatic incidents. Several discussions regarding kidnapping by non-sovereignty free actors such as terrorist organizations revolve around information about the victim: nationality. The question of the victim’s nationality usually spurs discussion about the policies and security protocols of different states when negotiating with sovereignty free actors in issues related to kidnapping. For example, French nationals kidnapping by Boko-Haram in Northern Cameroon. But is worth noting that this report does not intend to answer the question of the impact related to future negotiations after terrorist abductions and targeting. However, this report expose strategic questions to be answered by experts; Is kidnapping or hostage-taking a tactic, technique, or procedure for terrorist organizations? What are the consequences and impact of kidnapping or hostage?

Despite the creation of regional and international security organizations, the impact and challenges of human security are still enormous. Drawing from the history of AQIM the payment of ransoms sometimes leads to a generalized increase in kidnapping which affects all Westerners in a region equally, regardless of a nation’s concession policy. The protein alliance (Anglo-Americans) or United States and United Kingdom have adopted two logical policy responses. The first, which concise to reduce the overall number of kidnappings by persuading other Western countries to cooperate in refusing to pay ransoms (no negotiation with terrorist). 

Meanwhile the second option is to relax the U.S. prohibition on private ransoms, so that Americans are not killed at such disproportionate rates. in certain circumstances, where some countries may continue to pay ransoms while the United States does not, terrorist groups will top the rate of kidnapping of Westerners, which will cause the life of Americans kidnapped. This option is preferable, as is likely to reduce the number of Americans killed by hostage takers, though other security protocols will be necessary to limit funding of terrorist organizations through ransom payments.

In addition to the above employers in conflict zone should review the training of their workers, and as well have predetermined kidnapping management policies. For instance; individuals sent to such zones should be brief on different security protocols in relation to any event of abduction, such as; contingent powers of attorney and predetermined passwords for email and social media accounts. These skills will be supportive to law enforcement and security forces efforts to disrupt the operations of these networks.

(The Author is the Editor of crimeandmoreworld.com)

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India News Brief

18 September 2020

COVID-19 Cases:5,118,2553  Deaths: 83,198

COVID-19 At a Glance 

The new guidelines issued by the Indian Ministry of Home Affairs (MHA) on 29 August

Metro rail will be allowed to operate with effect from 7thSeptember 2020 in a graded manner, by the Ministry of Housing and Urban Affairs (MOHUA)/ Ministry of Railways (MOR), in consultation with MHA. In this regard, Standard Operating Procedure (SOP) will be issued by MOHUA.

Social/ academic/ sports/ entertainment/ cultural/ religious/ political functions and other congregations will be permitted with a ceiling of 101 persons, with effect from 21st September 2020. However, such limited gatherings can be held with mandatory wearing of face masks, social distancing, provision for thermal scanning and hand wash or sanitizer.Open air theatres will be permitted to open with effect from 21stSeptember 2020.

Schools, colleges, educational and coaching institutions will continue to remain closed for students and regular class activity up to 30 September.
Online/distance learning shall continue to be permitted and shall be encouraged. However, following will be permitted, in areas outside the Containment Zones only, with effect from 21stSeptember 2020 for which, SOP will be issued by the Ministry of Health & Family Welfare (MoHFW):

Cinema halls, swimming pools, entertainment parks, theatres (excluding open air theatre) and similar places remain closed.

According to MHA directive, lockdown shall continue to be implemented strictly in the Containment Zones till 30th September, 2020.

COVID-19: Highlights 

Religious Places Visit: No Touching of Deity, No Sparkling of Holy Water No Prasada in Temples Wearing Mask Thermal Screening is a must 

Shopping Malls Visit: Elderly People With 65 Years of Age and Children Below 10 Years Are Advised to Stay at Home.

Restaurant and food courts in malls to operate at 50 per cent seating capacity with a mandatory distance of six feet between tables. No common prayer mats, physical offerings like prasad, or sprinkling of holy water, in places of worship. Age and health-based restrictions on stepping out of home. Masks to be mandatory, and the Aarogya Setu app 'recommended' for all.

Use of masks, thermal screening, social distancing and sanitisation, the guidelines  require people above 65 years of age, specially  people with comorbidities, pregnant woman, and children below the age of 10 years, to stay at home. Masks are mandatory at all times, including inside restaurants

Standard Operating Procedures issued by the Indian Health Ministry 

  • International air travel, Metro rail services not allowed 

Cinema halls, gymnasiums, swimming pools, entertainment parks, theatres, bars and auditoriums, assembly halls and similar places; and, social/ political/ sports/ entertainment/ academic/ cultural/ religious functions/ and other large congregations will not allowed..

According to MHA guidelines, in Phase II, schools, colleges, educational/ training/ coaching institutions etc., will be opened after consultations with States and Union Territories.

There shall be no restriction on inter-State and intra-State movement of persons and goods. No separate permission or approval or e-permit will be required for such movement

But  states have the freedom to decide on public movement.

How to identify Fake News or Messeges on Social Media 

Beware of Fake News and Fake Messages on Social Media

Always follow websites or social media platforms of traditional media outlets whether newspapers, magazines,Television News Channels or Radio Stations and authentic online only media outlets.They still maintain journalism excellence and stress on reportorial talent.On the other hand, fake news websites run by people with non journalism background and promote their own ideology with fake news and disinformations and obviously conspiracy theories.

But unfortunately mainstream media also manipulates news to establish their story angle.There were various instances when News papers and TV Channels promoted fake news/conspiracy theories in the form of out of context or manipulated pictures/videos and distorted informations.

Always check the URL of any website.Some fake news websites look like the orginal and popular one the same layout,Logo but if you check the URL you may find extra words like if the orginal website's URL is www.xxx.com the duplicate one might be www.xxx.com.co or something like that so first check the URL for authentic informations.

Check whether photos are original or photoshopped.Check Google images for authenticity.You can find help from Google Reverse Images search.

Check the news sources from other websites whether they picked up the story or not.

Whether the website layout is little bit clumsy and obviously grammatical mistakes and spelling mistakes and excessive use of Sex related and sensational and hate stories.Because sex and hate sells.

Follow official websites relating to COVID-19

WHO Clarifies the disinformation about the virus:
COVID-19 virus can be transmitted in areas with hot and humid climates
Cold Weather and Snow can not kill the new coronavirus
Taking a Hot Bath Does Not Prevent COVID-19
COVID-19 Can not be transmitted through mosquito bites

Spraying alcohol or chlorine all over your body will not kill viruses that have already entered your body. Spraying such substances can be harmful to clothes or mucous membranes (i.e. eyes, mouth)

According to World Health Organization (WHO): Regularly and thoroughly clean your hands with an alcohol-based hand rub or wash them with soap and water

Maintain at least 1 metre (3 feet) distance between yourself and anyone who is coughing or sneezing.

Avoid touching eyes, nose and mouth . If you have fever, cough and difficulty breathing, seek medical care early

Stay at home if you begin to feel unwell, even with mild symptoms such as headache and slight runny nose, until you recover.

If you develop fever, cough and difficulty breathing, seek medical advice promptly as this may be due to a respiratory infection or other serious condition

Follow WHO guidelines

www.who.int

When you follow COVID-19 related news and messages from social media then check and recheck it before consuming it.Follow journalism mantra: if your mother says she loves you, check it out.

Most of the messages or informations quote different organizations like WHO, UNICEF, UNDP,Cambridge University  or other well known institutes,organizations or individual to authenticate the messeges.Check official websites of these organizations  if stories are repeated there

Forwarding messages from unknown sources or little known sources, it would be better to ignore it.

Check whether any logo like UNICEF or WHO or other organizations used in the messages which look similar to original logo.

These type of messages are full of Grammatical mistakes and spelling mistakes which are quite uncommon in original messages.

Don't rely on viral social media messages such as Coronavirus Infected Indian Currencies of Rs.500 and Rs.2,000 Notes Found, Muslim Man Spit in Food At Indian Restaurant.....Always Check Authentic Sources.

Some fake messages pretend to be real one like unofficial Twitter handle of international media organizations like BBC,CNN,Washinton Post, New York Times-check the official Twitter handles of media outlets.

You can identify fake messages if the message requests you to share it.

Beware of Fake News or Fake Photos/Videos Relating to Communal Hatred

Always check the fact checking sites if you have some doubts about the authenticity of any information or picture.

www.boomlive.in

www.altnews.in

https://check4spam.com

https://smhoaxslayer.com

www.factchecker.in

www.allsides.com

www.factcheck.org

www.newsbusters.org

www.politifact.com

www.snopes.com

www.propublica.org

The Same Method Applies to You Tube Videos Check the Source the credibility of the Source.To Check Fake You Tube Videos Check and Recheck the sources. Does the person have the legal right to the video posted? Did that person capture the video? Whether it has been altered?

But due to advancement of technology we can not really wipe out fake news.According to experts advent of  Artificial Intelligence(AI) some companies small or big one developing  technologies that can  lay digitally created script to anybody's voice  even words,sentences never said by the person.Even they a.re developing a technology which can create fake video footage,images,audios like originals.So be cautious! Rumour-mongers are active everywhere whether in physical world or cyber world.

For any further information relating to fake news and how-to search authentic informations from the internet write to us info@crimeandmoreworld.com or Whats App:+919073399779

COVID-19 Related Conspiracy Theories:
https://fsi.stanford.edu/news/china-covid19

 

 

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